《X射线晶体学基础》(Fundamentals of X-Ray Crystallography)[PDF]

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Foreword to the 2nd Edition
Foreword to the 1st Edition
Preface of the 1st Edition
Section Ⅰ Fundamental Principles of Geometric Crystallography
  Chapter 1 Principal Characteristics of CrystallineSolids
    1.1.1 Periodicity of internal crystalstructure
    1.1.2 Space lattice and crystal lattice
    1.1.3 Other basic properties of crystal
  Chapter 2 The Identity Theorem of the Facial Angle
    1.2.1 Apparent crystal face and actual crystalface
    1.2.2 Identity of the crystal faces angles
    1.2.3 Crystal projections
  Chapter 3 Principles of Crystal Symmetry
    1.3.1 Symmetry and symmetry in crystals
    1.3.2 Identity,symmetry center,and reflectionplane
    1.3.3 Symmetry axis(rotation symmetryaxis)
    1.3.4 Rotoinversion axes Lni
    1.3.5 Rotoreflection axes Lns
  Chapter 4 Combination of Symmetry Elements
    1.4.1 Symmetry element combinations without thegeneration of higher-fold rotation axes
    1.4.2 Symmetry element combinations involvingonly 1 higher-fold axis
    1.4.3 Intersection of higher-fold axes withsymmetry planes in a perpendicular position
  Chapter 5 Symmetry Combinations Allowed in Crystals
    1.5.1 Symmetry combinations involving no morethan 1 higher-fold axis
    1.5.2 Combination of symmetry axes involvingmore than 1 higher-fold axis
    1.5.3 Combination of symmetry axes involvingmore than one high-fold axis with one symmetry plane
  Chapter 6 Orientation of Crystals and Crystal Systems
    1.6.1 Zone and zone axis
    1.6.2 Orientation of Crystals
    1.6.3 Classification of Crystal Systems
  Chapter 7 Crystal Face Indices and Crystal EdgeIndices
    1.7.1 Crystal Face Indices
    1.7.2 Crystal Edge Indices
    1.7.3 Relationship Between Edge Indices and FaceIndices
  Chapter 8 The Equivalent Point Set
    1.8.1 The General and Special Equivalent Pointssets
    1.8.2 Orientation of the international notationsof point groups
    1.8.3 The deduction of coordinates forequivalent point sets
    1.8.4 Numbers and coordinates of the equivalentpoints in equivalent point sets
  Chapter 9 Monomorphous crystal forms, composite crystalforms, and their examples
    1.9.1 Monomorphous crystal form
    1.9.2 Composite crystal form
Section Ⅱ Symmetry Principle of Microscopic Space
  Chapter 1 Translation in Microscopic Space
    2.1.1 Periodic Translation
    2.1.2 Translation Symmetry Operation
    2.1.3 Non-primitive translation
  Chapter 2 Symmetry Elements in Microscopic Space
    2.2.1 Characteristics of symmetry elements inmicroscopic space
    2.2.2 The glide symmetry planes
    2.2.3 The screw symmetry axis
    2.2.4 Coordinates of symmetry equivalent pointsin various screw axes
  Chapter 3 Combinations of Microscopic Symmetry Elements andPeriodic Translations
    2.3.1 Combination of the nonhigh-fold axis ofmicroscopic symmetry elements and the periodic translation
    2.3.2 Combination of a 4-fold axis and theperiodic translation
    2.3.3 Combination of a 3-fold axis and theperiodic translation
    2.3.4 Combination of 6-fold axis and periodictranslation
  Chapter 4 Combination of Symmetry Elements in MicroscopicSpace
    2.4.1 General properties of "combination ofsymmetry elements in microscopic space
    2.4.2 Perpendicular intersection between thesymmetry axis and the symmetry plane
    2.4.3 Intersections between symmetryplanes
    2.4.4 Combination between 2-fold axes
    2.4.5 Non-perpendicular intersection between2-fold axes and symmetry planes
  Chapter 5 Fourteen Bravais Lattices
    2.5.1 Selection of the unit lattice,primitivelattice,and nonprimitive lattice
    2.5.2 Fourteen Bravais lattices
    2.5.3 R lattice in the trigonal crystalsystem
    2.5.4 The [-110] orientation in the Bravaislattice of the tetragonal crystal system and [100] and [120]orientations in the Bravais lattice of the hexagonal crystalsystem
  Chapter 6 Combinations of Microscopic Symmetry Elements andNonprimitive Translations
    2.6.1 Combinations of symmetry center andnonprimitive translations
    2.6.2 Combination of symmetry planes andnonprimitive translations
    2.6.3 Glide plane d in a nonprimitivelattice
    2.6.4 Combination of a 2-fold axis andnonprimitive translation
    2.6.5 Combination of a 4-fold axis and anonprimitive translation
    2.6.6 Three-fold axes in the cubic crystalsystem
  Chapter 7 Deduction of the Spatial Symmetry Groups
    2.7.1 Selection principles of the origin in thecoordinate system
    2.7.2 International notation of the spatialsymmetry group
    2.7.3 Principles for the deduction of the 230space groups
    2.7.4 Transposition and rotation of coordinateaxes and transformation of space group notation
    2.7.5 Space groups of the triclinic crystalsystem and the monoclinic crystal system
    2.7.6 Space groups of the orthorhombic crystalsystem
    2.7.7 Space groups of the tetragonal crystalsystem
    2.7.8 Space groups of the hexagonal crystalsystem
    2.7.9 Space groups of the trigonal crystalsystem
    2.7.10 Space groups of the cubic crystalsystem
    2.7.11 Deduction of equivalent point systemsfrom the international notation for space groups
Section Ⅲ Fundamental Principles of Crystal X-ray Diffraction
  Chapter 1 Generation and Basic Characteristics ofX-rays
    3.1.1 Generation of X-rays
    3.1.2 Basic characteristics of X-rays
  Chapter 2 The Crystal Lattice and the ReciprocalLattice
    3.2.1 Establishment of the reciprocallattice
    3.2.2 Mathematical expression of the crystallattice and the reciprocal lattice
    3.2.3 Example of the crystal lattice and thereciprocal lattice
    3.2.4 Unit cell and reciprocal unit cell of thecrystal lattice
  Chapter 3 Nonprimitive Crystal Lattice and Its ReciprocalLattice
    3.3.I Two-dimensional point planes in crystallattice and their reciprocal lattice point planes
    3.3.2 The primitive lattice and the reciprocallattice of a crystal
    3.3.3 Face-centered C lattice and the reciprocallattice of a crystal
    3.3.4 Body-centered I lattice and the reciprocallattice of a crystal
    3.3.5 The all-faces-centered F lattice and thereciprocal lattice of a crystal
    3.3.6 The principle of the partial latticepoints' systematic absence in a nonprimitive crystal lattice
  Chapter 4 X-ray Diffraction in Crystals
    3.4.1 The Laue equation
    3.4.2 Expression of the Laue equation in areflection sphere
    3.4.3 The Bragg equation
    3.4.4 Diffraction of non-elementary substancestructures
  Chapter 5 Diffraction Sphere and Diffraction Space
    3.5.1 Reciprocal latticeand reflectionsphere
    3.5.2 Upper limit of the diffraction
    3.5.3 Symmetry of a diffraction space
    3.5.4 Systematic extinction of diffractionscaused by translation characteristics
    3.5.5 The 120 diffraction groups
    3.5.6 Symmetric equivalence of diffractions indiffraction space
    3.5.7 Transformation among diffraction indicesof symmetry equivalence in diffraction space
    3.5.8 Diffraction of real crystals
  Chapter 6 Method and Fundamental Principle of Single-crystalDiffraction
    3.6.1 The Laue method
    3.6.2 The Oscillation method
    3.6.3 The Weissenberg method
    3.6.4 The Precession method
    3.6.5 Fundamental principles of the 4-circlediffractometer
Figure Caption Index
Table Title Index


  Fundamentals of X-Ray Crystallography is thecondensation and crystallization of the author's over 50 years ofscientific research and teaching experience. In order to helpreaders to understand crystallography theory, to establish vividthree dimensional concepts of symmetry operations, simple geometryconcepts and methods are employed in the analysis and derivation ofthe symmetry principles and diffraction theory in this book. Thisbook is divided into three sections: fundamental principle ofgeometric crystallography, symmetry principle in the microscopicspace and fundamental principles of crystal X-ray diffraction.InSection I and Section II, with the application of consistencyprinciple between the distribution of general symmetry equivalentpoints and the spatial symmetry,the macroscopic and microscopicsymmetry and their combinations are intensively analyzed anddiscussed. The 32 point groups and 230 microscopic symmetrycombinations are systematically derived as well. In Section III,based on the relation between crystal lattice and its reciprocallattice, the mathematical model of reciprocal lattice, Ewald sphereand their relations are adopted in the elucidation of Laue Equationand Bragg Reflection Equation. Several important single crystaldiffraction measurement methods, instruments and their applicationsare also illustrated. In addition, through the principles ofsystematic absence of reciprocal lattice caused by microscopictranslations, the systematic absence principle of diffraction isillustrated. The 120 diffraction groups are derived as well.
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